Pinoy Weekly » Liham http://pinoyweekly.org/new Philippine news, analysis, and investigative stories Mon, 07 Apr 2014 17:50:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.8.1 Bukas na Liham sa Mamamayan http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2014/03/bukas-na-liham-sa-mamamayan/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2014/03/bukas-na-liham-sa-mamamayan/#comments Mon, 31 Mar 2014 03:13:10 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=28772
Imahe mula sa People Surge FB

Imahe mula sa People Surge FB

Kami po ay mula sa People Surge, isang alyansa para sa mga nasalanta ng bagyong Yolanda. Mula po kami sa iba’t-ibang probinsya ng Eastern Visayas at nagpasyang lumuwas ng Maynila para mangalampag ng suporta sa gobyerno. Nitong Enero 25, mahigit 12,000 biktima ang nagrali sa lansangan ng Tacloban. Ngunit hindi pa rin kami pinakinggan.Kaya pumunta na kami sa Maynila dala ang aming mga hinaing at kahilingan. Nitong Pebrero 17, sa ika-100 araw ng Yolanda, pumunta kami sa Malacanang para isumite ang petisyon na pinirmahan ng 17,585 biktima, para sa mga sumusunod:

• Ibigay ang P40,000 cash relief para sa bawat pamilyang nasalanta. Nakalaan ito sa dalawang buwang gastusin para sa batayang pangangailangan ng isang pamilya upang mabuhay tulad ng pagkain, pamasahe at araw-araw na pangangailangan;

• Ibasura ang patakarang “No Build Zone” na nagpapalayas sa amin sa aming mga kabahayan at kabuhayan; at

• Ipagpatuloy ang relief laluna sa mga liblib na lugar hanggang sa panahong relatibong istable ang aming kalagayan.

Tatlong lider lang po namin ang pinapasok matapos ang matagal na paghihintay sa labas ng gate ng Malacanang. Subalit hindi rin kami hinarap ni Pres. Noynoy Aquino. Nabalitaan na lang namin ng sumunod na araw na tinanggihan na niya ang aming mga kahilingan. Tinawag pa niya kaming tamad at palaasa sa abuloy. Sa buong buhay namin, banat ang aming buto sa pagtatrabaho. Marami sa amin ay mga magsasaka na lumilikha ng yaman at pagkain ng bansa. Nabubuhay kaming may dignidad sa sarili at sa aming trabaho.

Sinubukan pa rin naming puntahan si Sec. Dinky Soliman ng Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Pero nais lang niya na pumirma kami sa isang kasulatan na kuntento na kami sa relief gn DSWD. Ititigil na rin daw ang relief sa mga pamilyang kaya nang tumayo sa sarili.

Paano po nila matitiyak na makatatayo kami sa sariling mga paa kung wala namang matinong programa ng trabaho at kabuhayan para sa amin? Panandalian ang remedyong tulad ng “cash for work program” at “conditional cash transfers.” Karamihan pa sa mga nasalanta ay hindi naman miyembro ng ganitong programa at sangkatutak ang rekisitos para maging miyembro.

Nais naming maka-alpas na sa relief. Hindi kami mga pulubi, kami ay nasalanta. Pero hanggang ngayon walang oportunidad na ibinibigay para magkaroon ng istable, permanente at disenteng trabaho at kabuhayan.

Maaasahan ba namin ang programang rehabilitasyon ng gobyernong Aquino na pinangungunahan ni Sec. Panfilo Lacson? Kayo po ang humusga. Ginawa po ito nang walang konsultasyon sa mamamayan. Mas malala pinaghati-hatian na ang aming lugar ng malalaking negosyanteng malapit kay Pres. Aquino tulad nila Manny Pangilinan, Henry Sy, Lucio Tan, Aboitiz at iba pa. Sa imprastruktura inilalaan ang rehabilitasyon gayong 80% ng mamamayan sa Eastern Visayas ay nakaasa sa agrikultura.

Samantala, ang mga ayaw umalis sa kanilang lugar na idineklarang “No Build Zone” ay hindi kakabitan ng tubig at kuryente. Kaligtasan lang daw namin ang habol ng gobyerno kaya may “No Build Zone”. Pero bakit pwedeng magtayo ng negosyo ang malalaking kapitalista at dayuhan sa mga lugar na mismong kinamatayan ng aming mga mahal sa buhay? Bakit patuloy ang malakihang pagmimina at logging sa mga liblib na lugar na dinaanan ng Yolanda?

Habang nananawagan kami ng patuloy na relief ay patuloy ding itinatapon sa basurahan ang mga nabulok na relief goods. Unang buwan pa lamang matapos ang Yolanda ganito na ang kalakaran ng pamahalaan, pagtatapon hindi lamang sa garbage sites kundi sa karagatan ng Ormoc City. Gayundin, ang mga nabulok na bigas na hindi naibigay sa mga nasalanta ng bagyong Pablo sa Mindanao ay ipinamahagi na rin sa mga nasalanta ng Yolanda. At habang nagtuturuan ang mga ahensya ng gobyerno kasabay naman nilang ikinakalat na walang matatanggap na relief ang sumasali sa mga kilos protesta.

Tinatanggihan po ng gobyernong Aquino ang cash relief na hiling namin. Pero nasaan ang bilyon-bilyong pisong donasyon mula sa mga bansa na pinadaan sa gobyernong Aquino? May pondo rin na pambili ng bilyong pisong Jet fighter plane at pantustos sa militar na naghahasik ng lagim sa mga nasalantang lugar. Kamakailan, aming napag-alaman na ipinagtatanong na ng mga sundalo ng AFP kung nasaan at sinu-sino ang mga lider at pumirma sa petisyon ng People Surge sa Malacanang.

Kalunus-lunos po ang pinsalang idinulot ng bagyong Yolanda, pero mas kagimbal-gimbal ang kainutilan at kapabayaan ng gobyernong Aquino. Libo-libong mamamayan ang nangamatay dulot ng kapabayaang ito. Nakaligtas man kami sa pinsalang dulot ng bagyong Yolanda, pero hindi kami ligtas sa kahirapan at kagutumang bunga ng kapabayaang ito. Nananawagan kami ng hustisya sa kriminal na kapabayaan ng gobyernong Aquino.

Nag-“sorry” si Pres. Aquino sa kabagalan ng kanyang pagresponde sa Yolanda. Pero hindi po nito mabubura ang pananagutan niya sa mamamayan, kasama na ang pagtalikod niya sa mga kahilingan ng mga nasalanta ng Yolanda.

Dumudulog na kami sa ating mamamayan. Nais po naming hingin ang inyong suporta na tulungan kaming kalampagin ang Malacanang at iba’t-ibang ahensya ng pamahalaan para tugunan ang aming mga kahilingan. Hindi po namin kakayanin ito nang kami lamang. Pero kung mas marami tayo, nagkakaisa at determinado, tulad ng pagtugon ninyo at pagtulong sa mga nasalanta ng Yolanda simula pa noong Nobyembre, makakayanan po natin ang mga unos sa ating buhay.

Maaari niyo pong gawin ang alinman sa sumusunod:1. Sumulat at/o ipaabot sa mga sumusunod na ahensya ng gobyerno na tugunan ang mga kahilingan ng mga nasalanta ng Yolanda:
a. Sec. Corazon “Dinky” Soliman, Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)
b. Sec. Panfilo Lacson, Office of the Presidential Assistance on Rehabilitation and Recovery (OPARR)
c. Sec. Carlos Jericho Petilla, Department of Energy (DOE)
d. Sec. Manuel Roxas, Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)
e. Pres. Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Aquino

2. Ipaalam ang inyong pakikiisa sa People Surge sa pamamagitan ng radio, TV, diaryo, text, at social media.

3. Sumali sa kampanyang “black ribbon para sa hustisya.” Tingnan at maging miyembro ng People Surge. Bisitahin ang www.peoplesurge.org . I-Like at i-Share ang www.facebook.com/PeopleSurge .

4. Pumirma, at magpapirma, sa aming manipesto ng suporta para sa mga biktima ng kapabayaan ng gobyernong Aquino.

5. Sumali sa “Global Day of Protest sa Abril 8.” Mag-upload ng inyong larawan na nananawagan ng hustisya at/o naniningil sa gobyernong Aquino kung nasaan na ang tulong/donasyon sa mga nasalanta ng Yolanda. Ipalaganap ang panawagang ito sa inyong mga kamag-anak, kaibigan at kakilala sa iba’t ibang panig ng mundo.

6. Lumahok at/o sumuporta sa kilos protesta sa Abril 8, 2014, ala-una ng hapon, sa Plaza Miranda patungong Mendiola. Ang Abril 8 ay ikalimang buwan ng Yolanda. Magsuot ng putting damit at black arm band.

Mamahalagahin po naming ang anumang suporta na maibabahagi ninyo.

Maraming salamat po!

Para sa pagkamit ng hustisya at karapatan,

Sr. Edita Eslopor, OSB
Chairperson, People Surge Alliance for Yolanda (Haiyan) Survivors

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NUJP on the Supreme Court ruling on Cybercrime Law http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2014/02/nujp-on-the-supreme-court-ruling-on-cybercrime-law/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2014/02/nujp-on-the-supreme-court-ruling-on-cybercrime-law/#comments Tue, 18 Feb 2014 16:03:12 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=28039 STATEMENT iconA half-inch forward but a century backward.

This best describes the Supreme Court’s decision on the petitions to declare the Cybercrime Prevention Act unconstitutional.

For while the high court rightly declared a number of provisions of the statute unconstitutional, it otherwise upheld the law and, worse, online libel, thus adding yet another element — ironically the very frontier we all believed would be most immune to attempts to suppress free expression — to an offense that former colonizers had, a hundred years ago, declared criminal in nature to stifle dissent, and which succeeding governments have conveniently retained in our Revised Penal Code for the very same reason and as a convenient tool for the corrupt and the inept in power to harass and muzzle those with the temerity to bring their venalities to light.

By extending the reach of the antediluvian libel law into cyberspace, the Supreme Court has suddenly made a once infinite venue for expression into an arena of fear, a hunting ground for the petty and vindictive, the criminal and autocratic.

We can only hope that the Supreme Court will not remain blind to this when appeals to the ruling are filed.

But if it does, then there can only be one response lest we be forced to surrender all our other rights — resistance.

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP)

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Letter to the Editor | On Aspartame and MSG: FDA again serving as instrument of corporate interests http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/12/on-aspartame-and-msg-fda-again-serving-as-instrument-of-corporate-interests/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/12/on-aspartame-and-msg-fda-again-serving-as-instrument-of-corporate-interests/#comments Tue, 03 Dec 2013 06:13:52 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=26851 Aspartame, an artifical sweetener, is used in many food and beverage products. (Wikimedia Commons)

Aspartame, an artifical sweetener, is used in many food and beverage products. (Wikimedia Commons)

This is in response to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory declaring categorically that the artificial sweeteners Aspartame and Monosodium glutamate (MSG) are safe. The FDA’s apparent justification is that  the WHO/FAO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) had approved the inclusion of aspartame and MSG in the Codex General Standards for Food Additives (GSTAN) 1992-1995 and that these additives are being used globally.

The FDA is again showing its gross ignorance of real science and is despicably acting as an instrument of corporate interests, as it has repeatedly demonstrated in the past. Just as the FDA has become the mouthpiece of Monsanto and Syngenta in promoting genetically modified food, it now promotes Monsanto’s profit-maker aspartame as safe when in fact it is harmful.

Aspartame and MSG are well-established by independent scientific studies as brain toxicants. They are called “excitotoxins”, a term popularized by Dr. John Olney,  a well-respected neuroscientist who demonstrated the neurotoxicity of MSG, aspartame and other excitotoxic amino acids commonly used as food additives.  These excitotoxins have the ability to penetrate the brain and excite or destroy brain cells.  There is in fact an enormous amount of both clinical and experimental evidence that has accumulated over the past years showing various adverse effects of aspartame and MSG, including,  migraine, seizures, abnormal neural development, certain endocrine disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, learning disorders in children, dementia, episodic violence, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and abnormal involuntary movements, among others. Recent studies studies on aspartame in animals suggested an increased risk of lymphomas, leukemias, and cancer of the pelvis, ureter, and bladder in a dose-dependent manner within ranges that are considered to be safe for human consumption. Additionally, significant brain damage (corroborating earlier findings) and malignant brain tumors were also observed.

The  WHO/FAO JECFA evaluation and approval of aspartame and MSG cannot be relied upon as a basis for the conclusion of safety. Apart from being outdated, the JECFA evaluation considered only the data submitted by the manufacturer. JECFA did not even examine the numerous independent studies available at the time of their evaluation showing contrary results to the industry submitted studies which expectedly found no adverse effects. For example, a review of studies on aspartame in the peer reviewed medical literature showed that 100% of the industry funded studies attested to aspartame’s safety, whereas 92% of the independently funded research identified a problem. Industry studies submitted and accepted by JECFA included many studies of unknown authorship and studies of questionable validity and relevance, with multiple instances of the same study being cited up to 6 times.

This recent advisory from the government’s FDA again illustrates how government instrumentalities that are supposed to protect people’s health and well-being are being used to advance corporate interest. Government policies guided by WHO and FAO have proven to be more effective at protecting vested interests than in protecting health and the environment. The reality is that corporate interests and political expediency are the dominant considerations influencing regulatory decisions where socio-political circumstances are conducive for powerful chemical companies to exert influence and manipulate public policy.  Decisions that tend to protect health and environment are allowed only in so far as these do not threaten significantly the dominant economic interests or only when strong public pressure is exerted on government.  Even intergovernmental bodies are not immune to corporate influence as technical committees are packed with corporate scientists or scientists under their influence.

 

Romeo F. Quijano, M.D.

Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

College of Medicine University of The Philippines Manila

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Letter to the Editor | Ericson Acosta on the arrest of activists, land reform advocates in Hacienda Luisita http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/09/letter-to-the-editor-call-for-release-of-activists-land-reform-advocates-arrested-in-hacienda-luisita/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/09/letter-to-the-editor-call-for-release-of-activists-land-reform-advocates-arrested-in-hacienda-luisita/#comments Tue, 17 Sep 2013 17:30:29 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=26039 (Mula sa Hacienda Luisita Campaign Facebook account)

(Mula sa Hacienda Luisita Campaign Facebook account)

Activists, including a militant legislator, cultural workers and church people, were arrested yesterday in Hacienda Luisita, Tarlac while conducting a fact-finding mission there. Among those still detained as of this writing is artist and former political prisoner Ericson Acosta. The group that helped campaign for his release in Samar, the Free Ericson Acosta Campaign (FEAC), released Ericson’s series of text messages narrating the arrest and their ordeal:

We were charged with malicious mischief, illegal assembly, direct assault, and trespassing. I lost my slippers during the violent arrest and we were only read the Miranda rights at the police headquarters where we are currently detained.

With me arrested are Anakpawis Representative Fernando Hicap, Danilo Ramos of Anakpawis party-list, Florida Sibayan, acting chairperson of Alyansa ng Magbubukid sa Asyenda Luisita (AMBALA), Sister Patricia Fox of the Zion Sisters, Kerima Tariman, Rene Blazan, Karl Mae San Juan of Anakpawis, Ronald Matthew Gustillo, Luz Versola, Pong Sibayan of Unyon ng mga Manggagawa sa Agrikultura (UMA),

Walking back to Balete, where the picket line of the farm-workers is located, we were violently arrested upon the order Supt. Razalan. The arresting police force consisted of seven armed men in plain clothing and armed supervisors of Cojuanco-owned Tarlac Development Corporation.

Four women were injured during the arrest including AMBALA acting chair Florida Sibayan, who passed out and incurred a head contusion.

We were practically arrested by the Cojuanco-Aquino family to hide the anomalous and violent implementation of a flawed land distribution scheme.

If the police will not drop charges against us, we will remain here for the night as it is Makabulos Day.

In a desperate move to maintain its illegal and contested ownership of the more than 6000-hectare Hacienda Luisita, the Cojuanco-Aquino family mobilizes the repressive forces of the police and military to terrorize and inflict violence on land reform advocates and famers.

Hacienda Luisita has historically been the economic base upon which the Cojuanco-Aquino built and maintained its political power. With the Supreme Court decision ordering the distribution of this vast land to the farm-workers, the Conjuanco-Aquino family, through no less than President Benigno Aquino III, continues to wield its political power to enforce fascism against the farm-workers and advocates of genuine land reform advocates.

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Scrap The Pork Barrel, The Fount of Patronage Politics http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/08/scrap-the-pork-barrel-the-fount-of-patronage-politics/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/08/scrap-the-pork-barrel-the-fount-of-patronage-politics/#comments Wed, 14 Aug 2013 10:13:33 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=25441

from the inbox icon“When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; but when the wicked rule, the people groan.”  (Proverbs 29:2)

The amount involved, the outrageous sense of betrayal felt by the general public and the total insensitivity of those involved to the greater majority of the people boggle the mind.  The scandal provokes sadness and anger.  Sadness at the plight of the people in the hands of its leaders.  Anger over the way people’s taxes have been misused.

This political decadence brought about by the pork barrel is not new.  It is a part of the patronage politics that has plagued the electoral and political system in this country.  No less than the Budget Secretary himself said in June 2012 that the “context of pork is ‘patronage politics’ and the logic that drives the selection of projects and the disbursement of many politicians’ pork funds, ‘pautakan lang ‘yan’ or ‘just play it smart’” (PCIJ, July 22, 2013).  The previous dispensation was an example of patronage politics.

Thus, there is every reason to be upset that the President who was elected via an anti-corruption drive and a platform of “daang matuwid” is not keen on removing this scourge.  Instead, it will remain and may even be increased.  Aside from the Php25 Billion for Congress, the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) also reported that the office of the President is allotted about Php317.5B for special purpose funds and Php117.5B for unprogrammed funds in the proposed General Appropriation Act of 2013.  PCIJ said “disbursement record on these funds have hardly been published online or disclosed to the citizens, despite repeated requests.”

There is neither justification for the misuse of public funds by leaders while the majority of the people wallow in want and vulnerability to disasters, nor any moral ground in the failure of our leaders to be accountable.

The National Council of Churches in the Philippines joins the groundswell to scrap the pork barrel system.  Let the funds be channelled to education, health, housing and other social services.  Let us be vigilant that the calls for investigation will not be muddled by the patronage system.  Let us remain focused on the issue of corruption in high places diverted as we are often by other issues.

To our leaders take heed when you become dealers of the posterity and patrimony of this country:  “When the wicked are in authority, transgression increases; but the righteous will look upon their downfall” (Proverbs 29:16).  Take heed that callous insensitivity and betrayal of the public trust has led many of our people from imploring arms to defiant clenched fists.  The downfall of the foolish is swift.

REV. REX RB REYES, JR.
General Secretary, NCCP

THE MOST REV. EPHRAIM S. FAJUTAGANA
Obispo Maximo XII, Iglesia Filipina Independiente
Chairperson, NCCP

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End Impunity Now! http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/07/end-impunity-now/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/07/end-impunity-now/#comments Sat, 20 Jul 2013 07:49:45 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=24994 Statement of the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication on the third year of the Aquino presidency
July 22, 2013

When Benigno S. Aquino III took his oath of office on June 30, 2010 as the 15th President of the Philippines, hopes were high that he could bring about much-needed change. The high expectations, however, remain just that – campaign promises that remain unfulfilled even if he is already in his third year in office. In the context of media, among his many promises is to stop the killing of journalists and to promote and uphold press freedom.

As early as July 25, 2011, the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication (UP CMC) has issued an official statement on the Aquino regime’s treatment of the media : “(A) scant month and a half in office, in August 2010, in apparent ignorance of the self-regulatory regime in the media, Mr. Aquino threatened to file criminal charges against some of the journalists who were in violation of the ethics of their profession during the coverage of the August 23 hostage taking incident… In the ensuing months Mr. Aquino kept up his criticism of the press, accusing them at one point of irresponsible behavior, while, in a call reminiscent of Joseph Estrada,  he urged the business community to advertise only in `responsible’ media organizations.”

This observation is consistent with an earlier statement of the College on November 23, 2010, the first anniversary of the massacre in Ampatuan, Maguindanao of 58 people, including 32 journalists and media workers: “The Aquino administration has denied the demands of local and international human rights and media organizations to disband the civilian volunteer organizations and other paramilitary groups that constitute the core of the warlord armies. And yet their disbandment is in most cases basic to stopping the killings…(I)t is an indispensable part of the imperative of trying and punishing the killers of journalists and political activists, and to dismantling the culture of impunity.”

The Aquino administration’s failure to create an environment conducive to ending impunity has resulted in the unabated killing of journalists. Latest data from the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) show that 12 journalists have been killed in the line of duty during the first three years of the Aquino presidency. It is interesting to note that during the first three years in office of her predecessor, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the work-related killing of journalists was pegged at 11.

While the killings are already a cause for alarm, what proves to be equally disconcerting is the fact that Aquino shares Macapagal-Arroyo’s attitude toward media.  In the past, his predecessor was quoted as saying that the good news is needed “to give more investors confidence in the country.” Aquino’s criticism of the Philippine press at present is not substantially different: “Sa karanasan ko po, tila ba nakasanayan na ng media na magpaulan ng batikos sa mga lumalabas na balita. Allergic po yata ang iba sa good news. Kundi man iiwasan ang mga ito ay hahanapan naman nila ng masamang anggulo.” (In my experience, it appears that the media have gotten used to issuing a lot of criticisms on the news that comes out. It seems that some of them are allergic to good news. If they don’t avoid it, they look for the negative angle of a story.)

While Aquino and other government officials have every right to criticize media, they should do so based on the prescribed professional and ethical standards of the profession. And using those standards, they should be reminded that issues are reported not based on the “good” and the “bad” but mainly on how they affect people’s lives. In the interest of truth, journalists will always strive to air different sides of the story, including those who may not share the views of the government.

If the Aquino administration intends to fulfil the campaign promise to end impunity and to promote and uphold press freedom, we repeat our call in July 2011: “He can start by dismantling the private armies that in over a hundred places in the Philippines were behind or were involved in the killing of journalists. He can also seriously examine the wisdom of the `new’ counter-insurgency policy that his administration is implementing.  Of equal urgency is his making civilian control of the military a reality, as a necessary first step in stopping both human rights violations as well as the killing of journalists, in both of which military men have been involved as perpetrators, torturers, gunmen and co-conspirators.”

Indeed, there is a need to constantly repeat what has been said in the past as the present proves to be no different. The message is clear and the call must be heeded: End Impunity Now!

(This is the statement of the UP CMC in time for the President’s 4th State of the Nation Address on July 22, signed by 22 faculty members (full-time and part-time) led by Dean Roland Tolentino; 9 administrative staff and research personnel; 173 undergraduate students; and 9 graduate students)

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On the turnover of the ‘source code’ to Comelec http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/05/on-the-turnover-of-the-source-code-to-comelec/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/05/on-the-turnover-of-the-source-code-to-comelec/#comments Thu, 09 May 2013 16:22:51 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=24201 How sure are we now that the claimed “source code” is the same one loaded in 70,000 plus PCOS machines that have been deployed all over the Philippines with several already tested for FTS? It will need opening up all PCOS units and running the hash code – a humongous task that only a “superman” will be able to do before election.

Brillantes is just making the legal motions of complying with Sec. 14 of RA 9369 – compelled as he was after AES Watch individual members and other eminent voters filed a Petition against Comelec through the GPH with the UN Human Rights Committee on May 3; and on the same day, reelectionist Sen. Gordon filed a mandamus against Comelec before the SC on the source code issue.

We have demanded from Mr. Brillantes to reveal the terms and conditions that defined the negotiation with Dominion (brokered by the Comelec chairman himself), like, how much in taxpayers’ money was paid yet again? More importantly, is this move in effect paving the way for the Dominion to be the dominant player in the 2016 automated elections (Smartmatic phasing out because of its bungling)? Smartmatic’s Cesar Flores had revealed in a recent JCOC hearing that Dominion wanted to take over the Philippine market in election automation.

 Prof. Bobby Tuazon
UP Manila professor
AES Watch co-convenor

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Be a TRUE Iskolar ng Bayan! (The Undelivered Speech) http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/04/be-a-true-iskolar-ng-bayan-the-undelivered-speech/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/04/be-a-true-iskolar-ng-bayan-the-undelivered-speech/#comments Thu, 25 Apr 2013 05:46:09 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=23950 UP Cebu graduates, together with Staff Regent Jossel Ebesate, Student Regent Cleve Arguelles, some teachers and non-graduates, raised placards and held a streamer calling on the graduates to "serve the people" who funded their education. (Contributed Photo)

UP Cebu graduates, together with Staff Regent Jossel Ebesate, Student Regent Cleve Arguelles, some teachers and non-graduates, raised placards and held a streamer calling on the graduates to “serve the people” who funded their education.

Note from the writer: This is the unabridged version of the speech. I was to deliver the shortened version (shortened due to time constraints) but to no avail because we were blocked by the marshals from our way towards the stage. Nonetheless, SR Arguelles did his job well by delivering a speech, instead, though the microphone was turned off while he was speaking. Translated version is after this note.

 

May we request everyone to offer a moment of silence, respect and prayer for our fellow Iskolar ng Bayan Kristel Tejada on her 40th day after her death last March 15 and for all Filipino youth, as well, who have been deprived of their fundamental right to quality and accessible education.

Usa ka mapula ug taas-kumong pagsaludo kanatong tanan, mga Iskolar ng Bayan, sa atong mga magtutudlo ug kawani, ug labi na sa atong mgaginikanan ug sa uban pang mga nagpaskwela kanato labi na ang masang katawhan.

Sa katapusan, kita ni-graduate na jud human sa upat ka-tuigo labaw pa, di lamang bahin sa acads kon dile apil na ang pagraduate nato sa mga ginaproblema sa usa ka Isko ug Iska susama sa pagpangita’g mga paagi aronmakakwarta para ibayad sa matrikula; ang paghulat sa taas nga linya sa STFAP Application arun ipamatuod nga probe pa ta’s tanang pobre; ang pagbalanse sa pagtuon, trabaho ug panlawas para sa mga working students; ang pagpasar-pasar sa pagkaon aron makatipid; ug uban pa.

Sulod sab sa upat ka tuig o labaw pa, kita nagkauban saatong mga pakigbisog alang sa atong mga katungod ug kaayuhan ug nagkauban sabkita sa pag-ani sa mga bunga aning atong mga pakigbisog sama sa padayon ngaoperasyon sa UP High, dugang nga badyet sa UP ug sa State Universities andColleges (SUCs), pagpahawa sa usa ka undemocratic dean, pagpaabli sa duha kagates, pagpatukod sa mga tambayan, ug uban pa.

Pero bisan pa’g kita nakakab-ot ug mga kadaugan, padayongihapon ang bulok nga sistema sa pagpig-ot kanatong nga mga estudyante ugkabatan-unan. Bisan pa ma’g gipanghambog sa administrasyong Aquino angpagdugang niya sa badyet sa UP ug SUCs, aduna gihapo’y 17B pesos nga pagkaltas sa proposed budget sa SUCs para karung tuiga. Padayon gihapon ang pagsaka sa mga matrikula ug uban pang balayrunon sa mga publiko ug pribadong tunghaan ubos sa komersyalisado nga sistema sa edukasyon. Gani, kita nakasaksi sa giunsa pagpatay sa bulok nga sistema gamit ang mga mekanismo niini susama sa Tuition Increases, STFAP, Student Loan, ug uban pa, ang atong kauban nga Iskolar ng Bayan nga si Kristel Tejada ug ang pagpatay sa mga damgo sa tanang mga kabatan-unang gihikawan sa ilang katungod sa edukasyon.

Isip mga graduates, makaingon kita nga luwas na kita aningmga problemaha. Apan dili. Ig-gawas nato aning Unibersidad, labi na sa pagpanarbaho nato, kita na usab ang makasinati sa mga kalisdanan sa atong mga ginikanan ug sa katawhan — kita na usab ang masakitan sa kamahal sa mga palalitunon, sa kalisod sa pagpangita’g trabaho ug ang pag-abuso sa mga employers, sa kamahal sa plete kay dile na man kita pwede makaingon nga “estudyante, Nong, estudyante”, ug sa kalisod sa pagpangita’g kwartaaron igasto sa pagpa-eskwela sa atong mga anak puhon. Dinhi na gayod nat omakita ug mapamatud-an nga ang mga problema sa mga estudyante, dile gayod hilayo sa mga problema sa katilingban sa kinatibuk-an. Sulod ug gawas man sa tunghaan, kitang tanan apektado sa mga kontra-katawhan nga polisiya sa Daang Matuwid ni Aquino nga tataw kaayo nga para lamang sa imperyalistang US ug sa mga tuta niining mga lokal nga adunahan.

Mga Iskolar ng Bayan, ig-gawas nato ngadto sa atongkatilingban, aduna lang kita’y duha nga mga kapilian: ang mutrabaho ugmuserbisyo sa mga namig-ot o sa mga gipig-ot? sa mga nang-abuso o sa mgagipang-abuso? sa mga nanghimulos o sa mga gipanghimuslan? sa Daang Matuwid o saTamang Daan? sa pagpabilin sa kasamtangang kahimtang o sa pagduso ogkabag-uhan?

Nan, nasayod ang tanan nga kita ganahan og kabag-uhan saatong katilingban. Apan, labaw pa sa atong partisipasyon sa umaabot na eleksyonpinaagi sa pagpili sa mga makabayan ug makamasang lider, mahitabo lamang angtiunay nga kabag-uhan kon kita musalmot sa nasudnong-demokrasyang kalihukanalang sa pagbag-o sa katilingban. Atong ihiusa ang atong mga kusog sa kusog samasang katawhan.

Isip mga Iskolar ng Bayan nga gipa-eskwela sa katawhan,responsibilidad nato nga ubanan ang katawhan sa pagpangita’g tiunay ngahustisya ug kauswagan. Responsibilidad nato nga ubanan sila:

  • sa pagduso sapag-apud-apod sa yuta ngadto sa atong mga mag-uuma sama sa mga mag-uuma saHacienda Luisita ug Aloguinsan;
  • sa pagduso sa dugang nga suweldo ug benepisyo sa atong mgaginikanan ug sa tanang mga mamumuo;
  • sa pagduso sa dugang ug sakto nga badyetalang sa edukasyon, healthcare, housing ug uban pang mga batakang serbisyo;
  • sa pagprotektar sa atong mga kababayen-an ug kabataan;
  • sa pagprotektar sasoberanya sa atong nasod gikan sa mga langyaw ug imperyalista; ug,
  • sa pagprotektar sa atong kalikupan alang usab sa mga musunod nga kaliwatan.

Kay kita, dile lamang Iskolar para sa Bayan. Kita, gitawagnga mga Iskolar NG Bayan kay KAUBAN dapat kita sa katawhan sa pakigbisog alang sakatungod ug kaayuhan sa tanan ug alang sa tinuod nga kagawasan ug demokrasya saatong nasod Pilipinas. Ug ang masang katawhan ang mao’y katapusang hukom konkita, matinud-anon ba sa atong paka-Iskolar ng Bayan.

Busa, ang dakong hagit sa ato-a, bisag asa man kita muadto: be a true Iskolar ng Bayan!

Mga Isko ug Iska, humayo’t gamitin ang talino at husay at ialay ang buhay sa paglilingkod at pagtatanggol sa sambayanan!
Para sa tunay na demokrasya’t kalayaan!
Mabuhay tayong mga Pag-asa ng Bayan!
Serve The People!

* * *

[Salin sa Pilipino mula sa ilang bahagi na Bisaya]

Pasa at sugat na natamo ng awtor na naggiit na makapagsalita sa entablado, matapos marahas na itaboy ng mga guwardiya ng commencement exercises sa UP Cebu kamakailan.

Pasa at sugat na natamo ng awtor na naggiit na makapagsalita sa entablado, matapos marahas na itaboy ng mga guwardiya ng commencement exercises sa UP Cebu kamakailan.

May we request everyone to offer a moment of silence, respect and prayer for our fellow Iskolar ng Bayan Kristel Tejada on her 40th day after her death last March 15 and for all Filipino youth, as well, who have been deprived of their fundamental right to quality and accessible education.

Isang mapula’t taas-kamaong pagsaludo sa ating lahat, mga Iskolar ng Bayan, sa ating mga guro at kawani, at lalo na sa ating mga magulang o kung sinu-sino man ang nagpaaral sa atin, lalo na ang masang Pilipino.

Sa wakas, tayo’y nagtapos din matapos ang apat na taon o higit pa di lamang sa usaping akademiko kundi pati na rin ang pag-gradweyt natin mula sa mga suliraning kinakaharap ng bawat Isko at Iska gaya ng paghahanap ng mga paraan para makapera pambayad sa matrikula; ang paghihintay sa mahabang linya ng STFAP application upang patunayan na tayo’y mahirap pa sa lahat ng mga mahihirap; ang pagbalanse sa pag-aaral, trabaho at kalusugan para sa mga working students; ang sobrang pagtitipid sa pagkain; at iba pa.

Sa loob din ng apat na taong ito o higit pa, tayo’y nagsama-sama sa ating mga laban para sa ating mga karapatan at kapakanan at nagsama-sama rin tayo sa pag-ani ng mga bunga ng mga labang ito gaya na lamang ng patuloy na operasyon ng UP High, dagdag na badyet sa UP at sa State Universities and Colleges (SUCs), pagpatalsik sa isang undemocratic dean, pagpabukas ng dalawang UP gates, pagpatayo ng mga tambayan at iba pa.

Subalit, kahit nakasungkit tayo ng mga kapanalunan, patuloy pa rin ang bulok na sistema sa pagsupil sa atin na mga estudyante at kabataan. Kahit pa man na ipinalalandakan ng administrasyong Aquino ang dagdag na badyet sa UP at SUCs, mayroon pa ring 17B pesos na pagkaltas sa badyet na ipinanukala ng mga SUCs sa taong ito. Patuloy pa rin ang pagtaas nga mga matrikula at iba pang mga bayarin sa mga publiko’t pribadong paaralan sa ilalim ng komersyalisadong sistema ng ating edukasyon. Sa katunayan, atin pong nasaksihan nitong Marso kung paano pinatay ng bulok na sistema, gamit ang mga mekanismo nito gaya ng Tuition Increases, STFAP, Student Loan at iba pa, ang ating kapwa Iskolar ng Bayan na si Kristel Tejada at kung paano rin pinatay nito ang mga pangarap ng mga kabataang ninakawan ng kanilang karapatan sa edukasyon.

Bilang mga gradweyt, inaakala nating tayo’y ligtas nga sa mga sularining ito. Subalit, hindi. Sa paglabas natin mula sa Unibersidad na ito, lalo na sa ating pagtatrabaho, tayo na naman ang makakaranas ng lahat ng mga paghihirap ng ating mga magulang at ng sambayanan — tayo na naman ang masasaktan sa pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin, sa kahirapan sa paghahanap ng trabaho at pang-aabuso ng mga employers, sa mahal na pamasahe dahil di na tayo pwedeng magsabi ng “estudyante po Kuya, estudyante po“,  at sa kahirapan sa paghahanap ng perang pantutustos para sa pag-aaral ng mga magiging anak natin. Dito na natin makikita at mas mapapatunayan na ang mga problema ng mga estudyante ay tunay na di hiwalay sa mga problema ng lipunan. Nasa loob o labas man ng paaralan, tayong lahat ay apektado sa mga kontra-mamamayan na mga polisiya sa Daang Matuwid ni Aquino na klarung-klaro na para lamang sa imperyalistang US at ang mga tuta nitong nanggagaling sa naghaharing-uri ng ating lipunan.

Mga Iskolar ng Bayan, sa paglabas natin patungo sa lipunang ating ginagawalan, tayo ay may dalawang pagpipilian lamang: ang magtrabaho’t maglingkod para sa mga nanunupil o sa mga sinusupil? sa mga nang-aabuso o sa mga inaabuso? sa mga nagsasamantala o sa mga pinag-sasamantalahan? sa Daang Matuwid o sa Tamang Daan? sa pagpapanatili ng status quo o sa pagsulong nga pagbabago sa lipunan?

At alam naman ng lahat na gusto natin ng pagbabago sa lipunan. Datapuwa’t, mas higit pa sa ating partisipasyon sa darating na eleksyon sa pamamagitan ng pagboto sa mga makabayan at makamasang lider, magaganap lamang ang tunay na pagbabago kung tayo ay lalahok sa pambansang demokratikong kilusan para sa pagbabago sa lipunan. Ating ipagsama ang ating mga lakas sa lakas ng masang Pilipino.

Bilang mga Iskolar ng Bayan na pinag-aral ng taumbayan, responsibilidad natin na samahan ang taumbayan sa pagkamit ng tunay na hustisya at kaunlaran. Responsibilidad natin na samahan sila:

  • sa pagsulong ng pamamahagi ng mga lupain sa ating mga magsasaka gaya ng mga magsasaka sa Hacienda Luisita at sa Aloguinsan;
  • ang pagsulong ng dagdag na sahod at benepisyo sa ating mga magulang, guro at sa lahat ng mga manggagawa;
  • ang pagsulong ng dagdag at saktong badyet para sa edukasyon, healthcare, pabahay at iba pang mga batayang serbisyong-panlipunan;
  • ang pagtatanggol sa ating mga kababaihan at kabataan;
  • ang pagatanggol sa ating soberanya mula sa mga dayuhan at mga imperyalista; at,
  • ang pagtatanggol sa ating kalikasan mula sa mga pang-aabuso para sa mga susunod na henerasyon.

Sapagka’t tayo ay hindi lamang mga Iskolar para sa Bayan. Kundi, tayo ay tinaguriang mga Iskolar NG Bayan dahil tayo ay KASAMA ng taumbayan sa bawat laban para sa karapatan at kapakanan ng lahat at para sa tunay na kalayaan at demokrasya sa ating bansang Pilipinas. At ang taumbayan ang silang huling maghuhusga kung tayo ba ay tunay ngang mga Iskolar ng Bayan.

Bagkus, isang malaking hamon sa ating lahat, kahit saan man tayo mapunta o pumunta: be a true Iskolar ng Bayan!

Mga Isko ug Iska, humayo’t gamitin ang talino at husay at ialay ang buhay sa paglilingkod at pagtatanggol sa sambayanan!
Para sa tunay na demokrasya’t kalayaan!
Mabuhay tayong mga Pag-asa ng Bayan!
Serve The People!

Ni-repost mula sa Facebook note ng awtor

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‘No to War of Aggression in the Korean Peninsula’ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/04/letter-to-editor-no-to-war-of-aggression-in-the-korean-peninsula/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/04/letter-to-editor-no-to-war-of-aggression-in-the-korean-peninsula/#comments Wed, 03 Apr 2013 17:21:49 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=23768 Map of the Korean Peninsula

Map of the Korean Peninsula

We are individuals and migrant workers organizations in South Korea who are greatly alarmed and concerned on the possibility of eruption of war of aggression in the Korean Peninsula. We, in the strongest terms oppose and resist any attempt from the contending countries and states to start a direct armed confrontation and the use of both conventional and  high tech war armaments including nuclear weapons to achieve their political-military and economic ends.

The provocations through the Joint US-ROK military exercises should be stopped now. The DPRK responses to the provocations, as we understand them are all on the defensive, for since the Armistice of 1953, the US-ROK joint military exercises have always intended to overthrow the government of the DPRK.

We recall that on March 11, 2013 the Joint US- ROK began its annual “Key Resolve” and “Foal” war games. These, and the “Ulchi” games that took place in August 2012, rehearse invasions of North Korea for several months each year. Far from creating security in the region as those governments claim they do, these games deliberately provoke and stir up animosity towards the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea (DPRK), extend the state of civil war, and promote war as a solution to a conflict instigated and perpetuated by US imperialism with the support of other imperialist countries. This heightened tension has reached an alarming level and people are anticipating at anytime war will broke out, but it seems that the ROK and the diplomatic communities in Seoul are just waiting to evacuate their nationals and are remained silent over the critical situation in the Korean Peninsula.

Very recently, on the first day of April, the advanced, radar-evading F-22 Raptors were deployed to Osan Air Base, the main US Air Force base in the ROK, from Japan to support ongoing bilateral exercises, the US military command in the ROK said in a statement that the DPRK to restrain itself. On Thursday, March 28, the US flew two radar-evading B-2 Spirit bombers on practice runs over the ROK. They flew from the US and back in what appeared to be the first exercise of its kind, designed to show America’s ability to conduct long-range, precision strikes “quickly and at will”, the US military said. Upon knowing of this Kim Jung-Un, leader of the DPRK, responded swiftly by signing the plan on technical preparations of strategic rockets of the Korean People’s Army, ordering them to be on standby for fire so that they may anytime strike the US mainland, its military bases in the operational theatres in the Pacific, including Hawaii and Guam, and those in the ROK,” media sources have disclosed.

Since coming into power in 2009, the ruling Senuri/Grand National Party US subservient government of the ROK has been undoing all the progress to reunify the peninsula and bring about peace worked out by the previous liberal governments, by churches, NGOs and communities. Continuous war games in recent years have caused an escalation of tensions. They have caused the DPRK to hold underground nuclear tests. This year, in fact, the persistent engagement in war exercises has prompted the DPRK to renounce the July 1953 Armistice Agreement and stand ready to make a counter-attack at any time as of March 11. The situation today is therefore extremely volatile.

THEREFORE:

We call on the governments of the sending migrant’s workers and the Republic of Korea as sovereign states to make a resolute resolve and appropriate actions to stop the war games and de-escalate the tensions in the Korean Peninsula.

We call on the government of the United States of America (USA), President Barack Obama, the Congress and Senate to act upon new foreign policies that are based on lasting justice and peace and prevent the US political-military institutions in pursuing military solutions to problems around the world, but rather put the basic humanity of peoples and nations as the top priority.

We support a just and peaceful resolution of the present crisis in the Korean Peninsula by ending the Korean War once and for all with a peace treaty, removing of the United States military from the region, and reunification through dialogue and political process.

We call on all justice and peace loving members of the global community to raise their voices against the war of aggression of the United States and other imperialist countries and to support all efforts and actions to evolve a new, just and peaceful world.

Federation of Filipino Workers Association in Korea
Southern Tagalog Organization
Association of Filipino Workers
Osan Migrant Center

01 April 2013

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On the passage of the Human Rights Violation Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/02/on-the-passage-of-the-human-rights-violation-victims-reparation-and-recognition-act-of-2013/ http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2013/02/on-the-passage-of-the-human-rights-violation-victims-reparation-and-recognition-act-of-2013/#comments Tue, 26 Feb 2013 04:54:14 +0000 http://pinoyweekly.org/new/?p=23236 Bonifacio Ilagan of SELDA speaks for human rights victims under Martial Law, during the signing of the Human Rights Violation Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013   during the 27th anniversary of EDSA People Power (Lui Quiambao Manansala)

Bonifacio Ilagan of SELDA speaks for human rights victims under Martial Law, during the signing of the Human Rights Violation Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013 on the 27th anniversary of EDSA People Power (Lui Quiambao Manansala)

Twenty seven long years after the fall of the Marcos dictatorship, a law confirming the atrocities and human rights violations under martial law is finally signed into law.  The Samahan ng Ex-Detainees Laban sa Detensyon at Aresto or SELDA, which led the filing of the historic class suit by the martial law victims against Ferdinand E. Marcos in a Hawaii court, welcomes the passage of the Human Rights Violation Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013.

This is another victory of the Martial Law victims in their continuing struggle for justice. Through their relentless efforts, finally and officially recognized are the heroism and sacrifices of all Filipinos who fought the dictatorship and were victims of human rights violations – summary execution, torture, enforced disappearances and all other gross forms of violations. They faced adversity, but took the courage to stand up and defend, not only theirs, but the people’s rights.

The struggle was protracted.  The process was agonizing and tedious. Scores of members of the Philippine Congress, in cahoots with the Marcoses and the military who vehemently opposed the passage of the law, tried to block its passing.  In some instances, they deliberately delayed the process or watered down the crafted bill.

Now, with a regime posturing as a “champion of human rights” and trying to score credits for its passage, the law was passed but mainly due to the persistent efforts of the martial law victims themselves.  Tirelessly working hand-in-hand with progressive party-lists and likeminded legislators, the bill was finalized and ratified.  Generally, the law is acceptable to the victims and survivors of martial law.

We take this opportunity to commend and express our gratitude to Bayan Muna Reps. Neri Colmenares and Teddy Casiño, who stood with us since the filing of the bill, pursuing the most pro-victim provisions, and consistently pushing, on behalf of the victims, the legislature to finally approve the bill. We also appreciate the support of Senators Chiz Escudero and TG Guingona, and Reps. Edcel Lagman and Erin Tañada.

Here and abroad, we were supported by various peace, justice and human rights advocates in the campaign for the bill’s passage. We extend our solidarity and gratefulness to solidarity groups in the United States, Hong Kong and Switzerland who warmly supported and mobilized in the campaign for the passage of the law, as well as in helping the victims every step of the way. We also thank the members of Parliament of Switzerland as well as its mission in Geneva for lending an ear to the victims’ pleas every time we lobby for their support. Most of all, we commend and deeply thank the members of the peace panel and consultants of the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP) who tirelessly asserted, in the process of all peace negotiations with the Philippine government, that the victims of Martial Law should attain justice.

It is with pain and regret for us to witness the passage of this law at a time when many of our fellow victims and colleagues, who took part in the struggle against martial rule, have gone ahead of us. Also, there are still attempts to distort, sometimes even completely erase in the memory of our people, the dark days of the dictatorship. There are those among the architects of martial law who remain scot-free and unpunished. The most notorious culprits have been allowed to regain their political power and influence.

Under the law, the Philippine government is obliged to recognize and give reparation to the victims of human rights violations during martial law. While all the sacrifices and heroism of the Filipino people during martial law is priceless, we see these both as an affirmation to the people who struggle for justice, and as a warning to those who will continue to impose fascism and terror upon the Filipino people.

We dedicate this small victory to all martial law martyrs and heroes who have gone before us. We will continue to honor them, as we ensure that this law shall be implemented to the best interest of the victims and the Filipino people who survived martial law.

We may be jubilant, but we continue to watch with vigilance. To fully ensure that the law will serve the rightful victims and claimants, we will try to make sure that the HRV Victims Claims Board shall be composed of individuals who, in one way or another, know and can feel with the victims and have been involved in the struggle against the Marcos dictatorial regime.

We take cognizance that SELDA is part of the recommending entities to the Claims Board. We challenge the administration to appoint nominees of SELDA despite some government officials’ bias given SELDA’s political stands.

Also, it should be ensured that those who are included in the master list of the 9,539 victims and those who will consequently file their claims are those who were genuinely part of the struggle against martial law. We should guard against unnecessary bureaucratic processes and scams which will deprive the victims of just indemnification.

We should also take the opportunity to make the younger generation learn, understand and take on the challenge of having the same daring, vigilance, militancy and commitment to justice and human rights.

It has been 40 years after martial law but human rights violations continue to be committed, and with impunity. There has not been much change except for the worse under the dispensations that succeeded the U.S.-Marcos regime. The Marcos laws and executive orders were retained by the succeeding administrations.  The militarist mindset and fascist machinery remain intact especially with the continuous implementation of the US-backed counter-insurgency programs

As long as human rights violations continue, with or without martial law, we stand with the people for justice, democracy and human rights. NEVER AGAIN will we allow the enemies of the people to perpetuate the same injustices, oppression and exploitation against the majority of the Filipino people.

Marie Hilao-Enriquez

Chairperson, SELDA (Samahan ng Ex-Detainees Laban sa Detensyon at Aresto)

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